"Everyone has the right to clear, accessible, timely and meaningful information about the nature and extent of the threat to their health".

(Esteban Beltrán, Director of Amnesty International's Spanish Section, before the Economic and Social Reconstruction Commission of the Spanish Parliament, European Union Group, 12 June 2020)


Attempt to view in perspective the health hazard posed by the COVID-19 pandemic:

Mortality in spring of 2020 in Spain and Germany compared to the general death rate in both countries

7. Sources


European Mortality Monitoring (EuroMoMo), Statens Serum Institut, Kopenhagen

https://www.euromomo.eu/graphs-and-maps/, week 20/2020, accessed on 15/05/2020


Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) (National Institute of Statistics, Madrid)

Mortality in general

https://www.ine.es/consul/serie.do?s=MNP89585&c=2&nult=50, last accessed on 30/04/2020

Mortality in 2019, provisional data

https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736177008&idp=1254735573002&menu=resultados#!tabs-1254736195546, accessed on 22/04/2020

https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736177008&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735573002, accessed on 22/04/2020

Monthly and yearly data

https://www.ine.es/dynt3/inebase/index.htm?padre=1132&capsel=1134,accessed on 22/04/2020

Causes of deaths

https://www.ine.es/jaxiT3/Tabla.htm?t=14819, accessed on 22/04/2020

Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Monitorización de la Mortalidad diaria (MoMo)

[Institute for Health Carlos III, National Centre of Epidemiology, Monitoring of Daily Mortality (MoMo)], Madrid https://momo.isciii.es


https://momo.isciii.es/public/momo/dashboard/momo_dashboard.html, accessed on 23/04., 01/05., 27/05., 02/06. and 04/06/2020


https://momo.isciii.es/public/momo/dashboard/momo_dashboard.html#datos, accessed on 04/06/2020

General information on the novel Corona virus

https://covid19.isciii.es/, accessed on 04/06/2020.
(Update 27/06/2021: URL now is:

Other sources

Nosocomial infections

Val d'Hebron Hospital, Barcelona
(Update 08/05/2021: The document is not accessible any more. In can be consulted in "Materials" under the title EPINE-EPPS 2017 Informe Global de España Resumen.pdf.
Recent data concerning nosocomial infections:
Sociedad Española de Medicina Preventiva, Salud Pública e Higiene, Estudio de Prevalencia de las Infecciones Nosocomiales en España (EPINE), https://epine.es)

Digital journal immedicohospitalario


Digital daily El Diario

Belén Remacha / Raúl Sanchez, El registro de muertes suma de golpe 12.000 fallecidos durante el pico de la pandemia, más de la mitad en Catalunya (The death register suddenly increases by 12.000 deceased during the peak of the pandemia, more than half of them in Catalonia), https://www.eldiario.es/sociedad/MoMo-registro-muertes_0_1031697065.html?_ga=2.195763883.607369215.1590683111-795171950.1590683111, 27/05/2020, last accessed on 05/06/2020

Belén Remacha, Amparo Larrauri, epidemióloga: "Nunca llegaremos a saber cuántas de las 43.000 muertes de más fueron directamente por COVID-19" (We shall never know how many of the 43.000 excess deaths happened directly through COVID-19), https://www.eldiario.es/sociedad/llegaremos-cuantas-muertes-directamente-COVID-19_0_1033797562.html?_ga=2.257052940.607369215.1590683111-795171950.1590683111, 02/06/2020, last accessed on 05.06.2020.


Federal Office of Statistics
Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden

General population figures

https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Gesellschaft-Umwelt/Bevoelkerung/Bevoelkerungsstand/_inhalt.html, last accessed on 03/05/2020

General mortality

https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Gesellschaft-Umwelt/Bevoelkerung/Sterbefaelle-Lebenserwartung/Tabellen/sonderauswertung-sterbefaelle.html?nn=209016, last accessed on 05/06/2020

Special COVID-19-evaluation

https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Gesellschaft-Umwelt/Bevoelkerung/Sterbefaelle-Lebenserwartung/sterbefallzahlen.html, last accessed on 05/06/2020

Press release on mortality around week 19/2020

https://www.destatis.de/DE/Presse/Pressemitteilungen/2020/06/PD20_203_12621.html?nn=209016, last accessed on 06/05/2020.

Robert-Koch-Institut, Berlin

Numbers of cases of COVID-19

https://www.rki.de/DE/Content/InfAZ/N/Neuartiges_Coronavirus/Fallzahlen.html, last accessed on 03/05/2020

Characteristics of the novel Corona virus

https://www.rki.de/DE/Content/InfAZ/N/Neuartiges_Coronavirus/Steckbrief.html, last accessed on 11/06/2020

The course of COVID-19 from infection to death

, last accessed on 11/06/2020

Estimate of the development of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic

Robert-Koch-Institut, Schätzung der aktuellen Entwicklung der SARS-CoV-2-Epidemie in Deutschland – Nowcasting, Epidemiologisches Bulletin 17-2020, 23. April 2020,
, downloaded on 10/06/2020

Other sources

Website https://www.praeventologe.de


Digital daily Der Tagesspiegel, Berlin

https://m.tagesspiegel.de/wissen/mein-labor-hat-deutschland-vorsprung-eingespielt-virologe-drosten-reklamiert-rettung-von-bis-zu-100-000-leben-fuer-sein-team/25871954.html?? , last accessed on 11/06/2020


Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt and Company, 2007, p. 290-291.

---> Continue reading: Materials


1. Definition of the problem and summary

1.1. Definition of the problem

1.2. Summary

2. Spain

2.1 General mortality pattern

2.2 Deaths in Spain between February and the end of May 2020

Table 1: Monthly deaths (all causes) in Spain at times of influenza and COVID-19

3. Germany

3.1 General mortality pattern

3.2 Deaths in Germany between January and the end of April 2020

Table 2: Monthly deaths (all causes) in Germany at times of influenza and COVID-19

4. The usual "background" mortality patterns in Spain and Germany
compared to deaths with COVID-19

5. Open questions

6. Personal follow-up comments in May 2021

7. Sources

8. Materials

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