"Everyone has the right to clear, accessible, timely and meaningful information about the nature and extent of the threat to their health".

(Esteban Beltrán, Director of Amnesty International's Spanish Section, before the Economic and Social Reconstruction Commission of the Spanish Parliament, European Union Group, 12 June 2020)


18: Instituto Nacional de Estadística: https://www.ine.es/, accessed 29/04/2020. https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736177008&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735573002.

https://covid19.isciii.es/, accessed 03/05/2020.
(Update 27/06/2021: The URL now is:

20: https://www.ine.es/jaxiT3/Tabla.htm?t=14819

21: Regarding hospital germ infections in Spain, Informe global de España, Resumen, Análisis EPINE-EPPS 2017 (313 hospitales y 61.673 pacientes), 9 Noviembre 2017, concludes that between 7 and 9% of patients become infected within the hospital. (http://hws.vhebron.net/epine/Global/EPINE-EPPS%202017%20Informe%20Global%20de%20Espa%C3%B1a%20Resumen.pdf)  (Note 08/05/2021: The document can no longer be accessed. It can be viewed under "Materials" and the title EPINE-EPPS 2017 Informe Global de España Resumen.pdf.) The number of resulting deaths is not shown.
"According to the experts gathered at the conference, between 5% and 15% of patients admitted to hospital end up suffering from a nosocomial infection. The World Health Organisation (WHO) reminds that in Europe there are 4.5 million HCAIs (Healthcare Associated Infections, R.W.) per year, a figure that translates into 37,000 deaths and 16 million additional hospital stays." (Translation and emphasis mine.)
(Las infecciones nosocomiales más frecuentes en España son urinarias, respiratorias y del lecho quirúrgico, Article dated 28/04/2016 in https://www.immedicohospitalario.es/noticia/8349/las-infecciones-nosocomiales-mas-frecuentes-en-espana-son-urinarias-respiratorias-y-del-lecho-quirurgico).

22: Here I take data without own verification from former Ellis Huber, The Virus, People and Life. The Corona Pandemic and Everyday Health Care (Das Virus, die Menschen und das Leben. Die Corona Pandemie und die alltägliche Gesundheitsversorgung), https://www.praeventologe.de/hauptbeitraege-nicht-loeschen/1380-informationen-zu-corona, last accessed 24/04/2020, frequently updated.
I have asked Mr Huber, former chairman of the Berlin Medical Association and current chairman of the Association of Preventologists, for sources regarding the "background"-mortality of the current pandemic in Germany, but he has not answered me and has not expanded his internet presentation accordingly, which I regret. (Note 08/05/2021: Now there is a detailed list of sources at the site mentioned). Because of the relatively clear situation in Germany, which does not go beyond the norm, and in order to save time, I have refrained from checking the factual assertions he has made.

23: https://www.rki.de/DE/Content/InfAZ/N/Neuartiges_Coronavirus/Fallzahlen.html, last accessed 03/05/2020.

24: https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Gesellschaft-Umwelt/Bevoelkerung/Bevoelkerungsstand/_inhalt.html, last accessed  03/05/2020.

Attempt to view in perspective the health hazard posed by the COVID-19 pandemic:

Mortality in spring of 2020 in Spain and Germany compared to the general death rate in both countries

4. The usual "background" mortality patterns in Spain and Germany compared to deaths with COVID-19


---> Continue reading: Open questions


1. Definition of the problem and summary

1.1. Definition of the problem

1.2. Summary

2. Spain

2.1 General mortality pattern

2.2 Deaths in Spain between February and the end of May 2020

Table 1: Monthly deaths (all causes) in Spain at times of influenza and COVID-19

3. Germany

3.1 General mortality pattern

3.2 Deaths in Germany between January and the end of April 2020

Table 2: Monthly deaths (all causes) in Germany at times of influenza and COVID-19

4. The usual "background" mortality patterns in Spain and Germany
compared to deaths with COVID-19

5. Open questions

6. Personal follow-up comments in May 2021

7. Sources

8. Materials

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